Monitoring marijuana use in the United States: challenges in an evolving environment.
JAMA. 2016; 316: 1765-1766
Pharmacologic implications of marijuana use during pregnancy.
Nurs. Womens Health. 2017; 21: 217-223
Marijuana use in pregnancy and lactation: a review of the evidence.
Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 2015; 213: 761-778
Trends in self-reported and biochemically tested marijuana use among pregnant females in California from 2009-2016.
JAMA. 2017; 318: 2490-2491
Prevalence and patterns of marijuana use among pregnant and nonpregnant women of reproductive age.
Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 2015; 213: 201
Recommendations from cannabis dispensaries about first-trimester cannabis use.
Obstet. Gynecol. 2018; 131: 1031-1038
Fetal disposition of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) during late pregnancy in the rhesus monkey.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 1987; 90: 315-321
Rodent models in neuroscience research: is it a rat race?.
Dis. Model. Mech. 2016; 9: 1079-1087
Brain development in rodents and humans: identifying benchmarks of maturation and vulnerability to injury across species.
Prog. Neurobiol. 2013; 106–107: 1-16
Modeling transformations of neurodevelopmental sequences across mammalian species.
J. Neurosci. 2013; 33: 7368
Animal models of developmental brain injury: relevance to human disease. A summary of the panel discussion from the Third Hershey Conference on Developmental Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism.
Dev. Neurosci. 2002; 24: 364-366
A translational model to determine rodent’s age from human foetal age.
Sci. Rep. 2017; 7: 17248
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Breastfeeding among U.S. chidren born 2002–2014, CDC National Imunization Survey. https://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/data/nis_data/resul
Transfer of inhaled cannabis into human breast milk.
Obstet. Gynecol. 2018; 131: 783-788
Simultaneous analysis of frequently used licit and illicit psychoactive drugs in breast milk by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.
J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 2011; 55: 309-316
Presence of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in human milk.
N. Engl. J. Med. 1982; 307: 819-820
Re-opening windows: manipulating critical periods for brain development.
Cerebrum. 2012; 2012: 11
Critical period regulation.
Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 2004; 27: 549-579
Marijuana use by breastfeeding mothers and cannabinoid concentrations in breast milk.
Pediatrics. 2018; 142e20181076
Early life programming and neurodevelopmental disorders.
Biol. Psychiatry. 2010; 68: 314-319
Environmental epigenomics and disease susceptibility.
Nat. Rev. Genet. 2007; 8: 253-262
Early-life experience, epigenetics, and the developing brain.
Neuropsychopharmacology. 2015; 40: 141-153
Prenatal cannabis exposure increases heroin seeking with allostatic changes in limbic enkephalin systems in adulthood.
Biol. Psychiatry. 2007; 61: 554-563
Grey matter volume differences associated with extremely low levels of cannabis use in adolescence.
J. Neurosci. 2019; 39: 1817-1827
Early changes in the development of dopaminergic neurotransmission after maternal exposure to cannabinoids.
Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 1992; 41: 469-474
Maternal cannabis use alters ventral striatal dopamine D2 gene regulation in the offspring.
Biol. Psychiatry. 2011; 70: 763-769
Cannabis use by women during pregnancy does not influence infant DNA methylation of the dopamine receptor DRD4.
Am. J. Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2017; 43: 671-677
Cannabinoid exposure during pregnancy and its impact on immune function.
Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 2019; 76: 729-743
Epigenetic regulation of immunological alterations following prenatal exposure to marijuana cannabinoids and its long term consequences in offspring.
J. NeuroImmune Pharmacol. 2015; 10: 245-254
mu-Opioid receptor forms a functional heterodimer with cannabinoid CB1 receptor: electrophysiological and FRET assay analysis.
J. Pharmacol. Sci. 2008; 108: 308-319
Cognitive impairment induced by delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol occurs through heteromers between cannabinoid CB1 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors.
PLoS Biol. 2015; 13e1002194
Ligand-induced regulation and localization of cannabinoid CB1 and dopamine D2L receptor heterodimers.
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 2010; 332: 710-719
Endocannabinoid system and pregnancy.
Reproduction. 2016; 152: R191-R200
The role of the endocannabinoid system in gametogenesis, implantation and early pregnancy.
Hum. Reprod. Update. 2007; 13: 501-513
Multiple roles for the endocannabinoid system during the earliest stages of life: pre- and postnatal development.
J. Neuroendocrinol. 2008; 20: 75-81
Cannabinoid receptor signaling in progenitor/stem cell proliferation and differentiation.
Prog. Lipid Res. 2013; 52: 633-650
The emerging functions of endocannabinoid signaling during CNS development.
Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 2007; 28: 83-92
Endocannabinoid functions controlling neuronal specification during brain development.
Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 2008; 286: S84-S90
Neurobiological consequences of maternal cannabis on human fetal development and its neuropsychiatric outcome.
Eur. Arch. Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 2009; 259: 395-412
Differential developmental trajectories for CB1 cannabinoid receptor expression in limbic/associative and sensorimotor cortical areas.
Synapse. 2011; 65: 278-286
CB1 cannabinoid receptor expression in the striatum: association with corticostriatal circuits and developmental regulation.
Front. Pharmacol. 2012; 3: 21
Comparison of cannabinoid CB1 receptor binding in adolescent and adult rats: a positron emission tomography study using [F]MK-9470.
Int. J. Mol. Imaging. 2011; 2011: 548123
Expression and function of cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 and their cognate cannabinoid ligands in murine embryonic stem cells.
PLoS One. 2007; 2e641
Cannabinoid receptor, CB1, expression follows neuronal differentiation in the early chick embryo.
J. Anat. 2004; 205: 213-218
The endocannabinoid receptor, CB1, is required for normal axonal growth and fasciculation.
Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 2008; 38: 89-97
Analysis of cannabinoid receptor binding and mRNA expression and endogenous cannabinoid contents in the developing rat brain during late gestation and early postnatal period.
Synapse. 1999; 33: 181-191
Preferential limbic expression of the cannabinoid receptor mRNA in the human fetal brain.
Neuroscience. 2003; 118: 681-694
Autoradiographic study of pre- and postnatal distribution of cannabinoid receptors in human brain.
Neuroimage. 2001; 14: 1463-1468
Endocannabinoid signaling controls pyramidal cell specification and long-range axon patterning.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 2008; 105: 8760-8765
Hardwiring the brain: endocannabinoids shape neuronal connectivity.
Science. 2007; 316: 1212-1216
CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptor expression during development and in epileptogenic developmental pathologies.
Neuroscience. 2010; 170: 28-41
Prenatal exposure to the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 alters migration of early-born glutamatergic neurons and GABAergic interneurons in the rat cerebral cortex.
J. Neurochem. 2014; 129: 637-648
Ontogenetic development of cannabinoid receptor expression and signal transduction functionality in the human brain.
Eur. J. Neurosci. 2003; 17: 1747-1754
Developmental trajectory of the endocannabinoid system in human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.
BMC Neurosci. 2012; 13: 87
Differential subcellular recruitment of monoacylglycerol lipase generates spatial specificity of 2-arachidonoyl glycerol signaling during axonal pathfinding.
J. Neurosci. 2010; 30: 13992-14007
CB1 receptor-deficient mice as a model for depression.
Neuroscience. 2012; 204: 193-206
Postpartum depression in rats: differences in swim test immobility, sucrose preference and nurturing behaviors.
Behav. Brain Res. 2014; 272: 75-82
Diacylglycerol lipase-α and -β control neurite outgrowth in Neuro-2a cells through distinct molecular mechanisms.
Mol. Pharmacol. 2011; 80: 60-67
Endocannabinoids regulate interneuron migration and morphogenesis by transactivating the TrkB receptor.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 2005; 102: 19115-19120
Cloning of the first sn1-DAG lipases points to the spatial and temporal regulation of endocannabinoid signaling in the brain.
J. Cell Biol. 2003; 163: 463-468
An introduction to the endogenous cannabinoid system.
Biol. Psychiatry. 2016; 79: 516-525
Endocannabinoid signaling and synaptic function.
Neuron. 2012; 76: 70-81
Lasting impacts of prenatal cannabis exposure and the role of endogenous cannabinoids in the developing brain.
Future Neurol. 2011; 6: 459-480
Altering cannabinoid signaling during development disrupts neuronal activity.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 2005; 102: 9388-9393
Marihuana use by pregnant women: neurobehavioral effects in neonates.
Drug Alcohol Depend. 1980; 6: 415-424
Postnatal consequences of maternal marijuana use in humans.
Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1989; 562: 123-132
60- and 72-month follow-up of children prenatally exposed to marijuana, cigarettes, and alcohol: cognitive and language assessment.
J. Dev. Behav. Pediatr. 1992; 13: 383-391
36- and 48-month neurobehavioral follow-up of children prenatally exposed to marijuana, cigarettes, and alcohol.
J. Dev. Behav. Pediatr. 1990; 11: 49-58
Visuoperceptual functioning differs in 9- to 12-year olds prenatally exposed to cigarettes and marihuana.
Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 2000; 22: 11-20
A follow-up study of attentional behavior in 6-year-old children exposed prenatally to marihuana, cigarettes, and alcohol.
Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 1992; 14: 299-311
Adolescents prenatally exposed to marijuana: examination of facets of complex behaviors and comparisons with the influence of in utero cigarettes.
J. Clin. Pharmacol. 2002; 42: 97S-102S
Differential effects on cognitive functioning in 13- to 16-year-olds prenatally exposed to cigarettes and marihuana.
Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 2003; 25: 427-436
The effects of prenatal tobacco and marijuana use on offspring growth from birth through 3 years of age.
Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 1992; 14: 407-414
Effect of prenatal marijuana exposure on the cognitive development of offspring at age three.
Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 1994; 16: 169-175
Effects of prenatal marijuana exposure on child behavior problems at age 10.
Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 2000; 22: 325-336
Prenatal marijuana and alcohol exposure and academic achievement at age 10.
Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 2004; 26: 521-532
Prenatal marijuana exposure and intelligence test performance at age 6.
J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry. 2008; 47: 254-263
School achievement in 14-year-old youths prenatally exposed to marijuana.
Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 2012; 34: 161-167
Demographic, emotional and social determinants of cannabis use in early pregnancy: the Generation R study.
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2008; 98: 218-226
Growth, development and health from early fetal life until young adulthood: the Generation R Study.
Paediatr. Perinat. Epidemiol. 2004; 18: 61-72
The Generation R study: design and cohort update 2010.
Eur. J. Epidemiol. 2010; 25: 823-841
The Generation R study: design and cohort update 2017.
Eur. J. Epidemiol. 2016; 31: 1243-1264
The Generation R study: biobank update 2015.
Eur. J. Epidemiol. 2014; 29: 911-927
Conceptual issues in behavioral teratology and their application in determining long-term sequelae of prenatal marihuana exposure.
J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry. 2002; 43: 81-102
A literature review of the consequences of prenatal marihuana exposure. An emerging theme of a deficiency in aspects of executive function.
Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 2001; 23: 1-11
At the tip of an iceberg: prenatal marijuana and its possible relation to neuropsychiatric outcome in the offspring.
Biol. Psychiatry. 2016; 79: e33-e45
Neuronal substrates and functional consequences of prenatal cannabis exposure.
Eur. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry. 2014; 23: 931-941
Long-term consequences of perinatal and adolescent cannabinoid exposure on neural and psychological processes.
Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 2015; 55: 119-146
Prenatal cannabis exposure and infant outcomes: overview of studies.
Prog. Neuro-Psychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry. 2014; 52: 45-52
Maternal smoking, drinking or cannabis use during pregnancy and neurobehavioral and cognitive functioning in human offspring.
Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 2006; 30: 24-41
Altering endocannabinoid neurotransmission at critical developmental ages: impact on rodent emotionality and cognitive performance.
Front. Behav. Neurosci. 2012; 6: 2
Prenatal alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco use: infant mental and motor development.
Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 1995; 17: 479-487
Intrauterine cannabis exposure leads to more aggressive behavior and attention problems in 18-month-old girls.
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2011; 118: 470-474
Prenatal substance exposure: effects on attention and impulsivity of 6-year-olds.
Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 1999; 21: 109-118
Maternal and paternal cannabis use during pregnancy and the risk of psychotic-like experiences in the offspring.
Schizophr. Res. 2018; 202: 322-327
Prenatal marijuana exposure: effect on child depressive symptoms at ten years of age.
Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 2005; 27: 439-448
Predictors and correlates of high levels of depression and anxiety symptoms among children at age 10.
J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry. 2006; 45: 223-230
Associations between polygenic risk for psychiatric disorders and substance involvement.
Front. Genet. 2016; 7: 149
Genetic predisposition to schizophrenia associated with increased use of cannabis.
Mol. Psychiatry. 2014; 19: 1201-1204
Prenatal marijuana exposure contributes to the prediction of marijuana use at age 14.
Addiction. 2006; 101: 1313-1322
Effects of prenatal cigarette and marijuana exposure on drug use among offspring.
Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 2005; 27: 267-277
Prenatal marijuana exposure predicts marijuana use in young adulthood.
Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 2015; 47: 10-15
Effects of prenatal marijuana on response inhibition: an fMRI study of young adults.
Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 2004; 26: 533-542
Perinatal Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol exposure in rats modifies the responsiveness of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in adulthood to a variety of challenges with dopaminergic drugs.
Drug Alcohol Depend. 1996; 42: 155-166
Prenatal exposure to a cannabinoid agonist produces memory deficits linked to dysfunction in hippocampal long-term potentiation and glutamate release.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 2003; 100: 4915-4920
Inhaled delivery of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) to rats by e-cigarette vapor technology.
Neuropharmacology. 2016; 109: 112-120
Methodological considerations in neurobehavioral teratology.
Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 1996; 55: 455-457
Behavioural consequences of maternal exposure to natural cannabinoids in rats.
Psychopharmacology. 1995; 122: 1-14
Prenatal exposure to the CB1 receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 causes learning disruption associated with impaired cortical NMDA receptor function and emotional reactivity changes in rat offspring.
Cereb. Cortex. 2005; 15: 2013-2020
Perinatal exposure to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol causes enduring cognitive deficits associated with alteration of cortical gene expression and neurotransmission in rats.
Addict. Biol. 2007; 12: 485-495
Prenatal tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) alters cognitive function and amphetamine response from weaning to adulthood in the rat.
Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 2012; 34: 63-71
Repeated cannabinoid exposure during perinatal, adolescent or early adult ages produces similar longlasting deficits in object recognition and reduced social interaction in rats.
J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford). 2006; 20: 611-621
Long-term effects on cortical glutamate release induced by prenatal exposure to the cannabinoid receptor agonist (R)-(+)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-(4-morpholinyl-methyl)pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl]-1-naphthalenylmethanone: an in vivo microdialysis study in the awake rat.
Neuroscience. 2004; 124: 367-375
Altered regulation of glutamate release and decreased functional activity and expression of GLT1 and GLAST glutamate transporters in the hippocampus of adolescent rats perinatally exposed to delta(9)-THC.
Pharmacol. Res. 2010; 61: 334-341
Prenatal exposure to the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 increases glutamate uptake through overexpression of GLT1 and EAAC1 glutamate transporter subtypes in rat frontal cerebral cortex.
Neuropharmacology. 2007; 53: 369-378
Short- and long-term consequences of prenatal exposure to the cannabinoid agonist WIN55,212-2 on rat glutamate transmission and cognitive functions.
J. Neural Transm. (Vienna). 2009; 116: 1017-1027
Miswiring the brain: Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol disrupts cortical development by inducing an SCG10/stathmin-2 degradation pathway.
EMBO J. 2014; 33: 668-685
Molecular model of cannabis sensitivity in developing neuronal circuits.
Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 2011; 32: 551-561
Frau, R. et al. Prenatal THC exposure produces a hyperdopaminergic phenotype rescued by pregnenolone. Nat. Neurosci. (in press).
Scheyer, A.F. et al., Cannabinoid exposure via lactation in rats disrupts perinatal programming of the GABA trajectory and select early-life behaviors. Biol. Psychiatry Published online September 5, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2019.08.023.
Sex-dependent effects of in utero cannabinoid exposure on cortical function.
Elife. 2018; 7e36234
Persistent inhibitory circuit defects and disrupted social behaviour following in utero exogenous cannabinoid exposure.
Mol. Psychiatry. 2017; 22: 56-67
Maternal exposure to delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol facilitates morphine self-administration behavior and changes regional binding to central mu opioid receptors in adult offspring female rats.
Brain Res. 1998; 807: 101-109
Effects of perinatal exposure to delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol on operant morphine-reinforced behavior.
Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 2003; 75: 577-584
Role of cannabinoidergic mechanisms in ethanol self-administration and ethanol seeking in rat adult offspring following perinatal exposure to Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2007; 223: 73-85
Vanilloid receptors on sensory nerves mediate the vasodilator action of anandamide.
Nature. 1999; 400: 452-457
The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha mediates the anti-inflammatory actions of palmitoylethanolamide.
Mol. Pharmacol. 2005; 67: 15-19
A missense mutation in human fatty acid amide hydrolase associated with problem drug use.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 2002; 99: 8394-8399
FAAH genetic variation enhances fronto-amygdala function in mouse and human.
Nat. Commun. 2015; 6: 6395
Endocannabinoids modulate cortical development by configuring Slit2/Robo1 signalling.
Nat. Commun. 2014; 5: 4421
Monoacylglycerol lipase (MGLL) polymorphism rs604300 interacts with childhood adversity to predict cannabis dependence symptoms and amygdala habituation: evidence from an endocannabinoid system-level analysis.
J. Abnorm. Psychol. 2015; 124: 860-877
The serine hydrolase ABHD6 controls the accumulation and efficacy of 2-AG at cannabinoid receptors.
Nat. Neurosci. 2010; 13: 951-957
Cannabis use during pregnancy: pharmacokinetics and effects on child development.
Pharmacol. Ther. 2018; 182: 133-151
Prenatal exposure to cannabis and maternal and child health outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
BMJ Open. 2016; 6e009986
Executive functioning in preschool-age children prenatally exposed to alcohol, cocaine, and marijuana.
Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 2003; 27: 647-656
Correlates and trends in youth co-use of marijuana and tobacco in the United States, 2005-2014.
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2018; 185: 238-244
Probability and predictors of the cannabis gateway effect: a national study.
Int. J. Drug Policy. 2015; 26: 135-142
Prenatal care reduces the impact of illicit drug use on perinatal outcomes.
J. Perinatol. 2003; 23: 354-360
Perinatal marijuana use and the developing child.
JAMA. 2018; 320: 545-546
Programming of neural cells by (endo)cannabinoids: from physiological rules to emerging therapies.
Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 2014; 15: 786-801
Prenatal cannabis exposure – the “first hit” to the endocannabinoid system.
Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 2016; 58: 5-14
Maternal exposure to low doses of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol facilitates morphine-induced place conditioning in adult male offspring.
Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 1998; 61: 229-238
Developmental consequences of perinatal cannabis exposure: behavioral and neuroendocrine effects in adult rodents.
Psychopharmacology. 2011; 214: 5-15
Interacting cannabinoid and opioid receptors in the nucleus accumbens core control adolescent social play.
Front. Behav. Neurosci. 2016; 10: 211
μ Opioid and CB1 cannabinoid receptor interactions: reciprocal inhibition of receptor signaling and neuritogenesis.
Br. J. Pharmacol. 2006; 148: 387-395
Prenatal exposure to tobacco and cannabis: effects on autonomic and emotion regulation.
Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 2018; 68: 47-56
Schuetze, P. et al. Prenatal exposure to tobacco and marijuana and child autonomic regulation and reactivity: an analysis of indirect pathways via maternal psychopathology and parenting. Dev. Psychobiol. Published online March 13, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1002/dev.21844.
Simultaneous versus concurrent use of alcohol and cannabis in the National Alcohol Survey.
Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 2015; 39: 872-879
Breit, K.R. et al. The effects of alcohol and cannabinoid exposure during the brain growth spurt on behavioral development in rats. Birth Defects Res. 111, 760–774.
Adverse outcome pathway of developmental neurotoxicity resulting from prenatal exposures to cannabis contaminated with organophosphate pesticide residues.
Reprod. Toxicol. 2019; 85: 12-18
Bisphenol A induces hypothalamic down-regulation of the cannabinoid receptor 1 and anorexigenic effects in male mice.
Pharmacol. Res. 2016; 113: 376-383
Synergistic effect between maternal infection and adolescent cannabinoid exposure on serotonin 5HT1A receptor binding in the hippocampus: testing the “two hit” hypothesis for the development of schizophrenia.
ISRN Psychiatry. 2012; 2012: 451865